|Adverbs, Adjectives, Prepositions and Conjunctions|
It is important to remember first and foremost that in Russian you must always distinguish prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions, and adjectives. Because English lacks a case system, prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions and sometimes adjectives are often used interchangeably, e.g. I'll see you before the dance (preposition), I'll see you before I see Jean (conjunction), I've never seen you before (adverb). In Russian such words only occasionally may be used interchangeably and prepositions can ONLY appear with objects in the appropriate case. Here is a table with the words to look out for, followed by a few examples to demonstrate what I mean.
|передний front||перед+Тв in front of, before
впереди+Род in front of, before
|впереди up front, forward||перед тем, как
|задний back, rear||за+Тв behind
сзади+Род in the rear
|сзади in back, behind||*|
|средний middle||среди+Род amid||*||*|
|верхний upper||над+Тв above||вверху up, on top||*|
|нижний lower||под+Тв below||внизу below, down||*|
|последний last||после+Род after||потом after(wards), later||после того, как after|
|*||до+Род before||раньше before, earlier||до того, как before|
|верхний этаж||upper (top) floor||нижнее место||lower berth|
|верхняя одежда||outer garments||нижнее бельё||underwear|
|Верхний Совет||Supreme Soviet||нижняя ступенька||bottom step|
|Adverbs from Adjectives|
Most adverbs are created from adjectives by one of two means. If the adjective ends on -ский, the adverb is formed by prefixing по- and reducing the suffix to -ски, for example, русский "Russian" по-русски "in the Russian way or manner". Remember this translation for that is precisely what по-русски means. One may, of course, speak по-русски, but you may also cook по-русски, dance по-русски, and dress по-русски. If the adjective does not end on -ский, the adverb is formed simply by replacing the adjective ending with -o (rarely -e), e.g. быстрый "quick" быстро "quickly". Here are some more examples.
in the Polish way
in a princely manner
in a kingly manner
|Adverbs of PositionUp and Down|
These adverbs are self-explanatory. They are basic adverbs from which adjectives generally cannot be derived. Their meanings correspond to the three meaning patters of the verbs of position: (1) in the position, (2) to the position, and (3) from the position.
|Where?||Down||Up||Upstairs||To the side|
|Куда?||вниз||вверх||наверх||вбок, в сторону|
|Где?||внизу||вверху||наверху||сбоку, в стороне|
|Откуда?||снизу||сверху||сверху||сбоку, со стороны|
|Adverbs of PositionFront, Back, Sideways|
These adverbs behave the same as the preceding ones; they just refer to different positions and directions.
|Where?||Front||Back||Left | Right|
|Куда?||вперёд||назад||налево | направо|
|Где?||впереди||сзади, позади||налево | направо|
|Откуда?||спереди||сзади, позади||слева | справа|
|Why Don't You Try a Few?|
The following examples call for adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions with approximately the same meanings. See if you can figure out which one is needed. As in the previous examples, the first is a freeby. Pretend you typed in the suffix you see there, push the button with your cursor, and see what happens. Then you are on your own.