Still Other Russian Conjunctions
There are other Russian conjunctions with a variety of meanings more difficult to classify. This page will review them and provide you with examples.
Хоть, хотя " (al)though"
This conjunction implies a that there is a contradiction in the subordinate clause. It behaves pretty much like the English conjunctions although and though. "Even though" is expressed by adding the Russian particle for "even" и. Examine the following examples to see how it is used.
Лена ходит в джинсах, хотя их не любит. Lena wears jeans even though she doesn't like them. Хоть очень занят, я всё-таки приду. Although I'm quite busy, I'll come. Хотя книга была скучна, он дочитал её до конца Although the book was boring, he read it to the end.
А то "or, otherwise"
This conjunction's meaning is close to that of или but is a little stronger. Rather than simply "or", it means something closer to "otherwise". It indicates the (usually dire) consequences of not following the directions expressed in the main clause. Here are some examples.
Хорошо учись, а то ты не успеешь. Study hard; otherwise, you won't succeed. Привези шахматы, а то нам будет нечего делать Bring the chess set or we won't have anything to do.
Причем, притом "moreover"
This conjunction signals an addition to what has just been expressed in the main clause. It may be translated via "moreover", "on top of that", "in addition" or synonymous phrases.
Он ничего не делал, причём он ничего не умеет делать. He didn't do anything; moreover, he can't do anything. Лидия очень умна, притом и очень добра. Lydia is very smart; moreover, she is also very decent.
Потому, поэтому "therefore, so"
This conjunction marks a logical entailment of the main clause. It is the semantic opposite of потому что: Боря вышел потому, что было душно "Borya went out because it was hot" = Было душно, потому Боря вышел "It was hot so Borya went out." Here are some more examples.
Мороз был силён, поэтому все остались дома. It was freezing, so everyone stayed at home. Экзамены скоро будут, потому Нина всё занималась. Exams were coming up, so Nina studied all the time.
Cловно, будто, кабы "as though"
These conjunctions tell us that the subordinate clause is untrue, though someone believes it to be true. They all translate English conjunction "as though" fairly accurately. All three Russian conjunctions mean the same thing. Будто is sometimes preceded by как, i.e. как будто. Here are some examples.
Он верит, (как) будто своими глазами видел. He believes it, as though he had seen it with his own eyes. Валя ведёт себя, будто он мэр города. Valya acts as though he were the mayor of the city. Марина говорит, словно всё знает. Marina talks like she knows everything.