Verbal adverbs are participles that modify verbs rather than nouns.

The Past Adverbal Participles

Flowerlet The Form Flowerlet

The simplest way of deriving the past adverbal participles is by adding -в(ши) to the stem itself and making the same adjustments that are made with the similar past active adjectival participles on -вший. The major difference is that the last two letters of the suffix is not usually used:

• No changes are necessary for stems ending on vowels, e.g. спроси- : спроси-в(ши) > спросив "having asked".

• If the stem ends on a removable consonant (й в н or м ), the removable consonant is, well, removed: сделав "having done, made".

• If the stem ends on a fixed consonant, the в of the suffix is dropped and the ши is used to mark the past adverbal participle: спасти "having rescued (someone)".

• If the verb has two different stems for the present-future and past tenses, the stem of the past tense is used

приехать : приеду приехавhaving arrived
взять : возьму взяв having taken

• Verbs of motion form their past adverbs using the present adverb ending on the perfective stem.

приходи- : приходя arrivingприд- : придя having arrived
приноси-: принося bringingпринес- : принеся having brought
отводи- : отводя leading offотвед- : отведя having led off

Flowerlet The Function Flowerlet

The past adverbal participle modifies the main verb, indicating that the action denoted by the adverbal participle preceded that of the main verb. For this reason the perfective stem is almost always used to form the past adverbal participles. The subject of the adverbal participle, past and present, is always the same as the subject of the main verb.

Flowerlet Some Examples Flowerlet

Notice that the adverbal participle, like all adverbs, does not agree in any way with the verb it modifies or the common subject it shares with the main verb. The same form is used for masculine, feminine, singular, and plural subjects and verbs.

Когда Ваня собрал картофель, он стал готовить обед.
Собрав картофель, Ваня стал готовить обед.
Having gathered the potatoes, Vanya began preparing dinner.
Когда Маша написала письмо, она отнесла его на почту.
Написав письмо, Маша отнесла его на почту.
Having written the letter, Masha took it to the post office.
Когда Варя сказала это, она ушла домой.
Сказав это, Варя ушла домой.
Having said that, Varya went home.
Когда Соня принесла яблока, она раздавала их гостям.
Принеся яблоки, Соня раздавала их гостям.
Having brought the apples, Sonya gave them to the guests.

Flowerlet Now Try a Few Yourself Flowerlet

Type in the correct form of the participle below, then push the button to check your answer. Click here for font information.

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сделай- (сделать)
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выз(о)в- (вызвать)
посмотре- (посмотреть)
покрасней- (покраснеть)
уплыв- (уплыть)
прочитай- (прочитать)
принёс- (принести)
выпьй- (выпить)
перевёд- (перевести)
написа- (написать)

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© 1996 Robert Beard