Participles are verbs used as adjectives to modify nouns

The Present Active Participles

Flower   The Form  

The present active participle, like all present participles, is derived only from imperfective verbs, since it refers to an action that is currently taking place or which takes place repeatedly. The simplest way of deriving the Present Active Participle is to remove the final т from the 3rd Person Plural form of the verb, add -щ plus the appropriate adjective agreement endings, i. e. -щий, -щая, -щее, -щие. For example, the second conjugation stem for "divide" is дел-и-, so the present active participle is formed like this: делящий The verb делай- "do, make" ends on a consonant and so is a first conjugation verb. It forms its present active participle like this: делающий. Other consonants stems, like вед- (вести) follow the same rule: ведущий.

Flower   The Function  

Participles generally share a meaning with a который clause. Notice that the inflectional ending of the который clause is the same as that of the participle in the following examples. Notice also that, like который and adjectives, they agree with the noun in number and gender but, unlike который they also agree as to case.

Flower   Some Examples  

девушка, которая живёт у нас
the girl who lives with us
девушка живущая у нас
the girl living with us
человек, который сидит на диване
the person who is sitting on the couch
человек сидящий на диване
the person sitting on the couch
собака, которая всегда лает
the dog that always barks
всегда лающая собака
the dog always barking
дерево, которое сейчас зеленеет
the tree that is turning green now
сейчас зеленеющее дерево
the tree that is now turning green

Flower   Now Try a Few Yourself  

Type in the correct form of the participle below, then push the button to check your answer. Click here for font information.

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делай- (делать)
Type your answer here
...then push here

носи- (носить)
пьй- (пить)
смотре- (смотреть)
плыв- (плыть)
красней- (краснеть)
нёс- (нести)
стоя- (стоять)
ид- (идти)
лежа- (лежать)
читай- (читать)

More participal exercises

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© 1996 Robert Beard